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Fundamental Electrochemistry Research

Fundamental research runs the gamut of electrochemical test cells and techniques, with experimental requirements continuously evolving. Flexible and customizable test equipment allows for a range of systems to fit the specific needs of each researcher.

For researchers working in highly resistive media, whether that be organic electrolytes or porous concrete, Princeton Applied Research’s PARSTAT 4000A supplies 48 V compliance, while Solartron Analytical EchemLab XM with the HV option supplies 100 V compliance. These same researchers will likely benefit from iR compensation, offered with the majority of our instruments.

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has become a standard electrochemical technique used in materials characterization, porous membrane studies, analysis of corrosion resistant coatings and determination of electron transfer rates, as well as a multitude of other applications. Our suite of products covers frequency ranges from 10 µHz up to 32 MHZ, allowing EIS analysis of impedances on the order of 10s of microhms to those on the order teraohms.

Princeton Applied Research and Solartron Analytical have solutions for researchers looking for excellent low current accuracy and high current capability as well. Combining Princeton Applied Research’s PARSTAT 4000A with the low current interface results in an instrument with 122 aA resolution and the ability to measure and supply currents of +/- 4 A or +/- 20 A with the addition of an external booster. Similarly, the Modulab XM ECS can be customized with a femtoammeter option having current ranges as low as +/- 30 nA to +/- 2 A with up to 1 pA resolution. Both of these are possible solutions for researchers interested in the low current performance, such as those using ultramicroelectrodes, electrode arrays and those trying to measure extremely high impedances, in addition to researchers concerned with high current performance, such as those studying large surface area electrodes or investigating low impedance samples.

For scientists interested in electrochemical and materials-based measurements with spatial resolution, Princeton Applied Research has developed a scanning electrochemical workstation, the VersaSCAN, that can be configured for different scanning probe techniques that include: Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM), Scanning Vibrating Electrode Technique (SVET), Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP), Localized Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (LEIS), Scanning Droplet Cell (SDC) and Non-Contact Surface Profiling (OSP). With 6 different techniques available, the areas of application are very broad, from electrocatalyst characterization and mechanistic studies to studies of non-uniform corrosion and coating failures.

In addition to hardware, Princeton Applied Research and Solartron Analytical have a wide range of software solutions for optimal data acquisition for running cyclic voltammetry, fast galvanic/potential pulses, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Tafel analysis and more, with the added functionality of a variety of post-acquisition data analysis tools.

As research electrochemistry is also a common field at many educational institutions. Princeton Applied Research offers a wide range of price-performance systems, including a lower cost VersaSTAT 3 system that is easy to use, yet a powerful electrochemical system within range of most educational/teaching budgets. For the undergraduate or graduate level instruction, we can provide a system that is feature-rich and fully capable of performing those experiments most relevant to the theory and application of electrochemistry. Whether it is basic cyclic voltammetry or customized muti-step/scan application, the VersaSTAT series and VersaStudio software have it covered. Include with this our easily accessible and capable technical support team eager to assist the next generation of electrochemical researchers and you have the ideal product for educational applications.