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This application targets the evaluation of coated or painted materials.  These organic coatings provide a barrier between the electrode sample and the environment.  Without an electrode/electrolyte interface, electrochemical reactions do not proceed.  The study of these coatings is most commonly done by means of ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY (EIS).  EIS provides the means to assign current to, and thus evaluate, different processes. For example, in a coating analysis, EIS allows separation of water-uptake through pore formation, blistering, delamination, and corrosion of the underlying metal.

Princeton Applied Research’s VersaSTAT and PARSTAT product lines have on-board frequency responses analyzer (FRA) options for performing Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements.  An external Lock-in Amplifier or Frequency Response Analyzer is not required to add EIS functionality to these instruments.  Solartron Analytical's ModuLab XM uses a card-based FRA in order to provide best-in-class EIS measurements.

Localized Electrochemical measurements allow users to investigate non-uniform corrosion and corrosion mechanisms.  The scanning techniques available with the VersaSCAN platform provide local information about the electrochemical events on the sample’s surface.  The Localized EIS technique specifically measures a local current at a probe in an experiment based on the same principles of EIS to evaluate the state of the coating.  An example of the value of such localized information is the study of scratch tests on organic coatings.

The K0235 Flat Cell is designed to accept flat samples of varying sizes, exposing only a specific area with each experiment.