SolarLab XM Photoelectrochemical

SolarLab XM is an application specific XM (Xtreme Measurement) product that is primarily focused on solar cell / photovoltaic research, developed in conjunction with Professor Laurie Peter of the University of Bath, UK.

SolarLab XM includes a reference grade potentiostat, frequency response analyzer (FRA) and PhotoEchem module that provide complete characterization of a wide range of Solar/PV cells, including Perovskite and Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC). Additionally, the system can be used for development of visible spectrum photoelectrochemical systems such as Iron-Oxide photo-splitting of water.

A key feature of this system is its ease of use, with data analysis requiring just one click of the mouse! For experienced users SolarLab XM offers the ability to develop new experiment types with the powerful step sequencer. SolarLab XM includes:

  • Frequency and time domain techniques including IMPS, IMVS, Impedance, Photovoltage Decay, Charge Extraction, I-V
  • Auto analysis for calculating effective diffusion coefficients and electron lifetimes
  • NIST traceable light source calibration
  • Excellent thermal management of light sources for long term stability
  • Wide range of monochromatic high brightness LEDs
  • Full set of electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, chrono methods, galvano methods, impedance and AC voltammetry)
  • Auxiliary channels (12-wire) for simultaneous anode/cathode voltage and impedance
  • Best in class frequency response analyzer (FRA) - fast single sine, multisine/Fast Fourier Transform, Harmonic Analysis over the full frequency range
  • IPCE option for quantum efficiency measurements

  • Documents +

  • Specifications +

    Cell connections 2, 3 or 4 terminal
    Instrument connections CE, WE, RE, LO
    Floating measurements yes
    Impedance measurement bandwidth 1 MHz (via FRA)
    Maximum time record Unlimited
    IR compensation yes
    Counter Electrode (CE)
    Smooth "analog" scan generator
    64 Ms/s interpolated
    and filtered
    Voltage polarization (and compliance) range ±8 V
    Current polarization range Pstat ±300 mA
    Recommended voltage scan rate
    25 kV/s to 1 µV/s
    Recommended current scan rate 1 kA/s to 200 µA/s
    Maximum Compliance ±8 V
    Bandwidth (decade steps) 1 MHz to 10 Hz
    Polarization V / I error (setting + range) 0.1% + 0.1%
    Minimum pulse duration 1 µs
    Slew rate >10 V/µs
    Reference Inputs (RE)
    Connections Differential Input
    Cable shields Driven (3T) / Ground (4T)
    Maximum voltage measurement ±8 V
    Ranges 8 V, 3 V, 300 mV, 30 mV, 3 mV
    Accuracy (reading % + range % + offset) 0.1% + 0.05% + 100 µV
    Maximum resolution 1 µV
    Input impedance >100 GΩ, <28 pF (3T)
    Input bias current <10 pA
    Maximum ADC sample rate 1 MS/s
    Working Electrode (WE)
    Maximum current ±300 mA

    Ranges 300 mA to 30 nA (decades)
    Accuracy (reading % + range % + offset) 0.1% + 0.05% + 30 fA
    Maximum resolution 1.5 pA
    Compliance voltage range (floating) ±8 V
    Maximum ADC sample rate  1 MS/s
    Auxiliary electrodes (A, B, C, D)
    Differential Auxiliary Electrodes
    4 (same spec. as RE)
    DC Measurement Sychronized to RE
    Impedance measurement bandwidth 1 MHz (via FRA)

    Frequency Response Analyzer
    Maximum sample rate
    40 MS/s
    Frequency range
    10 µHz to 1 MHz
    Frequency resolution 1 in 65,000,000
    Frequency error
    ±100 ppm
    Minimum ∫ time per measurement
    (single sine, FFT or harmonic)
    10 ms
    Signal Output
    Single sine, multi-sine 
    Single Sine
    Linear / logarithmic
    Multi-sine / harmonic frequencies
    All or selected
    Analysis channels
    Accuracy (ratio)
    ±0.1%, ±0.1
    Anti-alias, digital filters, DC bias reject
    Analysis channels
    RE, WE, Aux A/B/C/D
    Analysis modes
    Single sine, FFT, Harmonic
    DC Bias rejection
  • Accessories +

  • Options +

    The Optical bench is shipped with a 590nm LED as standard. We also offer a range of LED's that can be ordered separately.
    LED Options
    LED Options (nm) Max Power (mA) Bandwidth (FWHM) (nm)
    420 500 12
    455 1000 18
    470 1600 29
    505 1000 30
    530 1600 31
    590 1600 14
    625 1000 16
    660 1200 25
    Cold White 1000 n/a
    Warm White 1000 n/a
    IPCE Options
    Monochromator Wavelength
    350 nm - 1100 nm
    System Wavelength (with Optical Bench
    350 nm - 800 nm
    Min. Step Size
    10 nm
    Typical Bulb Lifetime
    100 hrs
    Temperature Drift of Cell with Bias Light
    <1 Deg C after 10 min warm-up
  • Accessories +